Below is a list of reports from projects by Enyenaweh's team.
As a developing nation, Nigeria faces numerous challenges in its healthcare system. One of the key challenges is the scarcity of resources, including financial, human, and infrastructural resources (Onwujekwe et al., 2019). Limited funding poses a significant barrier to providing equitable and accessible healthcare services to the populace. The allocation of limited resources and effective healthcare spending are vital for achieving optimal health outcomes. Given the diverse healthcare needs and the scarcity of resources, it becomes imperative to employ health economic evaluation techniques as a guiding framework for decision-making in Nigeria. Health Economic evaluation provides a systematic approach to assessing the value of healthcare interventions, enabling policymakers to make informed decisions in the face of scarcity.
Economic evidence is increasingly being used for informing health policies. However, non-health economists do not always fully understand the underlining principles of health economic analyses, and inappropriate analyses and inconsistent methodologies may be used to inform health policy decisions (Turner et al., 2021). In addition, there is a lack of open-access information and methodological guidance, particularly in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings. In Nigeria, there is a paucity of evidence on health economics research, and there are concerns that health economic evaluations are not being used for decision-making processes, especially in LMIC settings where this field of research is less well-established (Luz et al., 2018).
Nigeria is experiencing an escalating rate of youth emigration toward Western countries, driven by economic difficulties, security concerns, and a lack of opportunities at home. This phenomenon is causing a brain drain and talent depletion that threatens the nation's social, economic, and political future. Policies aimed at mitigating this trend should focus on economic development, improving security, investing in education, and expanding job opportunities for young people.
Over the past years, Nigeria has seen a significant rise in the number of young people leaving the country for Western nations. The major factors driving this migration include:
Economic Difficulties: Economic instability and a lack of gainful employment opportunities for young people in Nigeria push many to seek better prospects abroad.
Security Concerns: The rise of insurgency and insecurity across Nigeria, particularly in the northern regions, has increased the incentives for young people to migrate.
Limited Opportunities: A combination of poor educational facilities, limited resources, and societal issues limit opportunities for personal and professional growth, causing young people to seek better futures overseas.
Background: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) remains a significant global public health concern, and Nigeria has been grappling with this devastating epidemic for several decades. Promoting knowledge and attitude toward HIV/ AIDS is a key strategy to control the prevalence of the epidemic. This study aimed to assess men’s and women’s knowledge of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria and its association with their attitudes towards HIV and people living with the disease
Methods: This study utilized data from the 2018 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (2018 NDHS). Descriptive statistics were used to determine the mean score related to comprehensive knowledge and attitude across each age group stratified by gender.
Background: Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) is high in Nigeria despite available antenatal care services in the country. This study aims to investigate the determinants of ANC utilization in Nigeria
Methods: This study was a secondary analysis of the 2021 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (Mics) & National Immunization Coverage Survey (Nics). Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to determine factors associated with the frequency of ANC visits and place of delivery.
Results: the factors that consistently determine the utilization of ANC services are the maternal level of education, place of residence, and wealth index. ANC utilization was more frequent in the southern part of the country compared to the northern regions.
Conclusion: This study underscores the need to thoroughly explore and address context-based barriers affecting the utilization of ANC services in order to reduce maternal mortality and provide equitable access to maternal healthcare in Nigeria. The recommended solution to these identified barriers is community engagement through health promotion interventions, increasing government budgetary allocation for health and improving ANC use by making it available, accessible and affordable to all women in Nigeria irrespective of their demographic characteristics.
This paper examines socioeconomic inequalities in maternal and child health care in Nigeria. Statistics demonstrate that Nigeria has one of the highest maternal and child mortality globally, with access to health care concentrated among the wealthiest. Evidence suggests that in Nigeria inequalities in access to quality services continue to persist. Using descriptive statistics, we use data from the Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) conducted in 2018 to measure inequalities in maternal and child healthcare variables across socio-economic status. It reveals that child and maternal health inequalities appear to be determined by different factors and while inequalities in child care have declined, inequalities in maternal care have increased. We discuss the findings in relation to the much greater attention paid to maternal and child health programs. The findings of this study call for specific maternal and child health programs targeting the poor, less educated and rural areas in Nigeria.
Flood disaster is common natural disaster witnessed in Nigeria. In 2022, Nigeria saw the worst flooding experience since 2012, which claimed the lives of more than 600 persons, and displaced thousands. It brought many economic losses to both individuals and the government. The Flood affected 34 of the 36 in Nigeria, exacerbating the hardship experienced by individuals, especially those in rural communities. The study examines the effect of the 2022 flood in Nigeria and the extent of the damages in the country. The study found the impacts of flooding to be negative and a significant impediment to community development. Flooding was found to aggravate poverty levels, worsen health conditions, and negatively impact educational status and community development. This study recommends the completion of the second dam in Nigeria, coordinated spatial planning, and the building disaster-resilient communities.
Onuoha Chijioke Johnson
This paper examines the impact of youth unemployment and labor productivity on Nigeria's economic development. Youth unemployment and underemployment are significant challenges facing Nigeria's economic growth. The paper examines the impact of these issues on the youth, society, and the economy at large. The analysis in this study employed a quantitative approach to its methodology. It relied on secondary data to analyze the factors responsible for youth unemployment in Nigeria and the impact of these factors on labor productivity in Nigeria. The study identified high unemployment as one of the significant socioeconomic factors which impede Nigeria's economic development, with its adverse negative effects on mostly the youths, who constitute over 50% of the persons affected. Some identified causative factors are but are not limited to rapid rural-urban migration, rapid population increase, inadequate quality education, and little private sector investment, which lowers labor productivity, severely hampering Nigeria's economic development.
Keywords: Youth Unemployment, Labor Productivity, Economic Growth and Development, Inclusive Growth.
Desk-study on the effects of the Covid-19 pandemic on primary education in Nigeria
The advent of the Covid-19 crisis in 2020 resulted in nationwide school closures across Nigeria. It necessitated a transition in learning delivery methods, from school to home learning. According to the National Bureau of Statistics, only about 55% of students participated in learning activities while at home. The majority were from private schools and wealthier homes. The statistics are alarming because over 70% of primary school students in Nigeria are enrolled in the public school system.
State Governments and some supporting organizations implemented specific interventions to aid primary school home learning. The National Bureau of Statistics (NBS, 2020) and The Education Partnership Centre on learning in a pandemic (TEP, 2020) carried out surveys around these interventions. These surveys helped to evaluate the effectiveness of the home learning strategies implemented. Research findings showed that in the face of crisis and the inability to be in school physically, the lack of resources and the socio-economic backgrounds of many households made home learning for most students very difficult. Students faced constraints, primarily because of the low-income financial backgrounds of a majority of families. The lack of basic amenities in poorer households hindered effective home learning. Additionally, the Covid-19 crisis also affected the ability of the girl child (UN, 2020) and children living with disabilities ability to learn effectively.
The inability to effectively learn at home by a majority creates learning and development gaps as their counterparts leave them behind. The crisis highlighted the inflexibility of the education system to adapt to change in the face of crisis effectively. The data shows an apparent and deepening socio-economic divide within the primary education system. Furthermore, reports indicate that low-quality school governance and the inability to learn at home has affected the out-of-school population rate. Many of the initiatives were not as effective due to constraints faced. However, there are some exceptions, such as the Edobest@Home program. It is a State-based initiative by the Edo State Government, which is primarily technology-driven. There is a need for the primary education system in Nigeria to shift from traditional teaching methods, incorporate technology in its processes and focus on quality delivery and learning outcomes nationally. Therefore recommendations were made towards the adoption of a more flexible learning system that incorporate the use of low and high technology solutions, which are adaptable in the face of crisis and beneficial to a large majority.
Variable descriptions for the Nigerian Living Standard Datasets.
The dataset is a product of the Nigerian Bureau of Statistics. It is published in a PDF format on the NBS website. At Enyenaweh, we recoded the data into an easily accessible formats. (xslx and CSV). This codebook provides a description of the re-coded variables.
The Nigerian living standards survey recoded in an easily accessible format- xslx; csv
Opportunities for Nigeria’s Emerging Technology Sector
Nigeria’s ICT (information and communication technologies) sector has grown from less than 1 percent of GDP in 2001 to almost 10 percent of GDP today (OC&C Consulting, 2018). Nigeria has also surpassed South Africa to emerge as a premier investment destination with 55 active tech hubs raising a total of US$ 94.9 million, while South Africa raised US$60.0 million with 59 active start-ups (Usman, Choi, & Dutz, 2019). The country is also Africa’s biggest technology market and accounts for 23 percent of internet users in Africa with 122 million people online in December 2018 (Internet World Stats, 2019). It also has the largest number of telecommunications subscribers, with a tele-density figure of almost 90 percent (Nigerian Communications Commission, 2019). The growth of the tech sector offers new possibilities for Nigeria’s growing labor force, in terms of employment and entrepreneurship.
Nigeria’s tech sector is an outgrowth of the Global Systems for Mobile Communications (GSM) System, which was introduced in Nigeria in August 2001, a few months after the creation of the National Information Technology Development Agency (NITDA). Almost 20 years later, over 100 million people have access to mobile telephones and internet use has risen to almost 50 percent (Internet World Stats, 2019). Mobile telephony and internet connectivity, combined with urbanization and population growth, have created an environment for technology products and services.
The Nigerian tech sector has benefitted from entrepreneurs moving to the country to set up companies (Bright, 2016). In 2012, two Harvard Business School graduates cofounded Jumia, a Nigerian e-commerce site and one of the first tech start-ups in the country. Since then tech firms have been established in the fields of energy, agriculture, banking, transportation, logistics, health, and finance. Several large tech companies have emerged over the past few years; these have attracted international attention and funding.
Nigeria’s tech sector has often found creative solutions to fill gaps left by the state. A weak public education system has provided room for education (“edutech”) start-ups that try to make learning more accessible and effective. Financial technology (fintech) start-ups are looking to engage segments of the population that cannot access traditional financial services
Summary of Research Findings
In a 15-month period (April 2017 - July 2018), 8,803 migrants have received different forms of reintegration assistance including cash transfers and medical assistance from IOM and partner organizations in Nigeria. Also, 4,752 individuals (including victims of trafficking, returned migrants, and other vulnerable individuals) have also received psychosocial counseling. Also 7,511 individuals were reported by IOM to have received business skills support to date. Moreover, as of 2013, it was estimated that the Nigerian migrant population in Europe and other transit countries was about 1.3 Million people. The large population of irregular migrants with Nigerian citizenship has increased in recent years. Increases in irregular migration by Nigerians have been attributed to growing insecurity in North East Nigeria, high rates of unemployment and the aspiration for better conditions of living in recipient countries. These socioeconomic challenges which triggered irregular migration in the first instance are often one of the biggest impediments to the sustainability of return of irregular migrants.
his workshop, facilitated by the Center for Global Development (CGD) and Enyenaweh, was opened by Jennifer Obado-Joel, President of Enyenaweh and a Program Fellow at the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. Jennifer outlined the fact that the ICT sector in Nigeria is rapidly growing and is now one of the largest in Africa. It is easy for young people to get qualified in tech skills, and there’s therefore a large opportunity to ensure they contribute to the development of the tech sector in Nigeria and abroad. Crafted labor migration processes can help provide opportunities for this talent to move easily.
Below are policy publications from members of the Enyenaweh' Team
Considerations for Amotekun
Nigeria faces immense internal security challenges, including the Boko-Haram crisis in the northeast and violent farmer-herder conflicts in the southwest and north-central states. Across the Nigerian federation, pockets of violent clashes have sprung and escalated in new locales in the last decade.
Engaging Stakeholders in Climate Change Projects
Climate-change is regarded as a complicated subject and viewed with suspicion by many. It is however difficult to deny its impact on living conditions and livelihoods in cities of developing countries. Increasing urbanization growth rates in these countries makes cities an important partner in the climate change agenda. In these locales, urban local administrators face harsh climate realities amidst growing development needs. one the dominant topics in development in recent times.
Commentary and Analysis
The Nigerian tech sector is booming, as is their youth population. This blog outlines findings from a new CGD report with the World Bank, showing how skill building schemes and managed labor migration could provide opportunities for Nigerian youth while expanding the tech sector.