top of page
  • Writer's pictureEnyenaweh Research

Concept Note: Taking a local perspective on measuring the impact of Gender based violence


Global approximations as published by WHO indicate that about 1 in 3 (35%) of women worldwide have experienced either physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence or non-partner sexual violence in their lifetime. This trend is reported in many cities of the world having cultural, religious and ancient norms, however the detrimental effects remain the same. Over the years gender based violence (GBV) have been used primarily to highlight the vulnerabilities associated with women and girls, chiefly because women undergo: sexual exploitation and abuse, child marriage, female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), sexual harassment, dowry/bride price abuse, honor killing, domestic or (IPV) intimate partner violence (considered the main form of GBV against women), deprivation of inheritance or property, elder abuse, economic & emotional abuse among others still unpopularized, many others still silenced. Gender-based violence against men also exist, men and boys face high levels of bullying, physical violence (some perpetuated by even women, also referred to IPV), gang – rape, physical abuse from and during initiation into manhood, emotional, physical and verbal attack especially for actions that transgress from societal conceptions of masculinity.

Within emergency settings, GBV especially on women is critically heightened, especially since laws and regulations are weakened, disrupted and unaccounted for. Displacement and separation of families and communities place women and girls at increased risk of violence and abuse and sexual violence may be used as a method of warfare to brutalize and instill fear in a civilian population – UNICEF (Gender based violence in emergencies, 2018). While several humanitarian agencies have ventured into IDPs with supports and relief aids, situations at camp sites remain the same.

In 2015, Nigeria experienced some of its major insurgency attacks in its North – Eastern zones orchestrated by terrorist groups which has deprived inhabitants of spouses, children, livelihood means and a lock down of all state’s activities amidst government declaring it a “state of emergency”. This crisis has left over 1000 residents internally displaced while others seek refuge in neighboring countries, many other young women were kidnapped. In response, the government of the day set up camps to monitor and better protect inhabitants with military personnel as default camp managers and coordinators of benevolent assistance provided to campers.

Within the context of this study, North eastern conflicted states referred to are: Borno, Yobe and Adamawa because they bear the most impacts of the Boko Haram Insurgency. For any emergency setting, women continue to be instruments of violence and human right deprivation, however given conditions of exposure these rights are violated consistently. All women irrespective of race and color have the right to body integrity, security and freedom from torture, cruelty and/or degrading treatment according to (CEDAW) convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women amongst others. While violence against inhabitants have taken world attention, delivering protection, support and care to these victims especially women and children has been an ongoing task for humanitarian agencies. All forms of interventions in medical supplies, food, shelter materials, counselling and support interventions have been supplied to aid victims. However, early this year, shocking reports emanated from IDP camps in Borno state- Nigeria where women allegedly under the care of the military were forced to accede to rape in exchange for food.

Gender based violence in these locations include sexual exploitation and abuse by civilian militias, members of state government. Women’s need to provide food for their families opens avenues to their vulnerabilities, many are sexually assaulted while searching for income or as a means of exchange for food and resources. Several reports implicate perpetuators of GBV in camps as military personel, vigilante groups and even camp managers

A safety audit conducted identified the precedence concerns of displaced women as domestic violence, rape and denial of resources. (Refugees International Field Report).

Obstacles have also been reported in reaching these women especially because issues of sexual nature are highly sensitive, under reported and even when reported received slow responses from governmental agencies, this may be as a result of low knowledge and even lower financing for these kinds of issues. However, despite increase in the number of programs administered, there remains progress towards complete resolve, which begs the need for a review of program impacts.

Interventions towards GBV especially in low accountability settings must be tailored to fit the vital needs of affected victims, interventions should support resilience, recovery processes, clear reporting order and safe spaces for discussion in pursuit of lasting solution for members of these communities Evidences are low concerning programs effectiveness and impact.


· To review and analyze the practices used to measure the impact of GBV programmes in one specific humanitarian context and identify tangible opportunities for innovation.

· To create a stronger evidence base for the global GBV community

· To create better data on the impact of GBV interventions

· To provide a stronger evidence base for ‘what works’ within GBV programming and support replication of effective services at scale.


Field research reports displays GBV related programming and framework are many times not survivor – focused, void of survivor’s accounts of expectations or accounts hence plans are less effective and do not record viable changes in victim’s life.

The methodology will employ a desk based systematic review to identify all interventions used within the context settings. Given the multiplicity of interventions already in motion, reviews will focus on interventions that have been successfully carried out in North Eastern zones aimed at preventing and managing GBV in violence settings, in order to understand approaches selected, sift out innovative interventions used, identify lessons learned and best practices documented. Also, humanitarian agencies, NGOs, CSO, Stakeholders and Partners involved in the GBV fight in Nigeria (especially those focused on North-Eastern regions) will be mapped out for key informants’ interview.

Findings from the review will be used to create a protocol and survey tool which will be used at the data collection phase.

A cross – sectional qualitative survey will be carried out to determine interventions impacts at the community level (which maybe at IDP camps, communities etc).

Focus group discussions will be conducted to dig deeper into existing vulnerabilities of programs and interventions carried out at their location with state staff, GBV coordinators, military and par-military authorities who guard and take care of these camps and members of the communities. Key informant interviews will be held with affected victims.

Outcome indicators will be comprised of measurable description of outcomes of successful project implementation, what project team will be responsible for accomplishing and why. This will facilitate analysis focus, evidence for decision making and creation of measurable impacts.


The scope and diversity of GBV programming in emergencies is steadily on the rise. However, the evaluation of GBV interventions mainly focuses on outputs, with little information about the quality or impact of these services. Evidence is essential for effective humanitarian programming and achieving improved outcomes for crisis-affected populations. Hence, creating an evidence base for programs to meet the needs of survivors would be strengthened if there were a standard approach to M&E that could be complemented and enhanced to meet the needs of specific contexts, especially in a resource-poor sector like GBV, better evidence has the potential to unlock funding and act as a powerful advocacy tool

Expected outcomes

Local perspectives on programs impact will be measured to improve access to critical material required by all vulnerable persons, developed mechanism for access to justice for survivors and individuals at risks, improved national capacity to uphold and adhere to international standards and GBV protocols and mainstream proven GBV interventions into all humanitarian response for replication and M&E interventions. Effective framework must integrate expectations from survivors & the community as a whole. To adequately plan out counter interventions views must be harnessed from direct & indirect victims as well as stakeholders and partners as they are well positioned to support all GBV interventions.


Banatvala, Nicholas, and Anthony B. Zwi. "Conflict and health: public health and humanitarian interventions: developing the evidence base." BMJ: British Medical Journal 321.7253 (2000): 101.

Holmes, Rebecca, and Dharini Bhuvanendra. "Preventing and responding to gender-based violence in humanitarian crises." London, UK: Humanitarian Practice Network (HPN)/Overseas Development Institute (2014).

Joe Read Sexual violence and the Boko Haram crisis in north-east Nigeria Humanitarian Practice Network (HPN)/Overseas Development Institute (2017).

217 views0 comments
bottom of page